Altruistic punishment in humans. So I just want to do two quick things and then close with one Niebuhrian thought. Studies of the mindset of soldierly duty shows that the psychology is one of fictive kinship and reciprocal obligation within a small coalition of individual men, far more than loyalty to the superordinate group they are nominally fighting for.
The same is true for less extreme sacrifices. But recall the fleet herd of deer and the herd of fleet deer. Broad causes, such as a massive superiority in manpower, technology, economic resources, and military skill will definitely influence the probabilities of certain outcomes.
Even some of our customary allies have long traditions as great powers and have not necessarily forgotten their own ambitions. As a result of the Palestinian Intifada in the Israeli-occupied territories, a de facto power vacuum developed. In three short wars, andBismarck disrupted the European balance of power by unifying most of the small German states into a single, powerful German Empire.
Despotism and differential reproduction. The selfish gene new ed. The Roman state existed as a distinct entity for nearly years—but the last government to legitimately call itself Roman existed in another city Constantinopleworshipped a different religion Orthodox Christianityspoke a different language Medieval Greekand was based on a political concept altogether different from that of the early Roman Republic.
Mass murder or genocide, for instance, unless they are violently resisted on a large scale and in an organized way, are crimes, not war. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 20, It was an irony because it was unintended, inadvertent, unconscious and a consequence of good intentions, rather than doing evil for the sake of a larger good, which he called tragedy, not irony.
Their argument is, look, we have a whole set of criteria that often are hard to nail down in particular instances, but at least as principles they are worth observing and worth trying to follow as a way of taming and legitimizing warfare in a civilized world.
The authorities argue that if they are to protect Catholics from discrimination, they must know exactly who is Catholic, and who is Protestant, even if neither is true.
Can you think of a talk show that would book Reinhold Niebuhr now? Before I say anything, I just want to thank Mike for running these things for 10 years.
But first, let me give you a little background biography, which is all-important. So I wanted to press you, E. Hence, the greater the progress, the greater the need for vigilance, the greater the need for some metaphysical check on human pride.
Neither problem had proved soluble through military means. And we can all hear the death chant of a hundred suicide bombers: The situation of Russians in the Ukraine turned to tragedy. Dionne is going to read to us from about five different books by Niebuhr that he has stacked over here. After the Peace of Westphaliamost European wars were fought either to maintain the rough equality of the "great powers" or to contain or destroy the occasional "shark" who sought to overthrow the system and impose its hegemony.
In fact, from the standpoint of any individual agent, the behavior of the other agents is itself a major element of the environment. Wilson explains, "In a group, selfish individuals beat altruistic individuals.
The United States finds itself drawn into local, regional, and transnational conflicts by a disparate mixture of internal pressures, economic self-interest, humanitarian impulses, and balance-of-power concerns. The opposition of the MCB, a moderate organisation linked to dozens of community groups, highlights the failure of the US and Britain to convince Muslims in the west of the validity of the war on terrorism.
How long—Vyacheslav Molotov, the Soviet foreign minister, had asked earlier—could, say, Romania or Bulgaria remain independent of the West after the introduction of American capital? And then, I guess the second half of that question is, if he saw institutions as so inherently sinful, even more so than individuals, I wonder what he thought about the potential for institutions to solve economic problems like poverty as opposed to individuals sort of bringing themselves out of it.
The key characteristic of politics, however, is that it is interactive—a competition or struggle.
The havoc and glory of positive illusions. Kin selection and eusociality. His subject was the peace process in Northern Ireland, and his theme was the insistence by the state that the population in Northern Ireland must be divided into Protestant and Catholic.
Such coalitions often involve non-state actors. His importance in his time tells you something about his time.
Should it fail to involve itself in the struggle, the state will lose a major justification for its existence and will likely find that existence challenged.
Emphasis on the importance of Germany and Japan, which before World War II were the key industrial powers in Europe and Asia, respectively, helped shape American postwar decisions to reconstruct these two nations economically and to anchor them in the American-directed international political-economic system.This response essay explores some of the key areas of agreement and disagreement between two recent articles on Cold War-era assessments of the Soviet economy.
The latest in our series of translations of Russian national-conservative intellectual Egor Kholmogorov. For the first part, see: Russians in the 2oth henrydreher.com I: Origins to WWII. Incidentally, while counter-mainstream commenters in the West are hardly well compensated.
The Cold War is rampant with American foreign policy and influential in shaping the modern world. Strategies of Containment outlines American policy from the end of World War II until present day.
Gaddis outlines the policies of presidents Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon, including policies influenced by others such as George. Another great essay.
I enjoy your writing so much Mr. Kingsworth– its like having my innermost feelings, thoughts and ideas given voice in a profoundly eloquent, erudite and insighful way. The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period betweenthe year the Truman Doctrine, a U.S. foreign policy pledging to aid. The containment doctrine, with its ambiguities and imprecision, was a major strategy and the guiding conception in American foreign policy from shortly after World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union in –and some might argue that containment remained a policy into the twenty-first century for the United States in dealing.Download